Research

Scientific evidence that Transcendental Meditation works

“Transcendental Meditation benefits from a vast body of 40 years of research showing very powerful long-lasting reductions in stress and sustained improvements in health.”

—Norman Rosenthal, MD, renowned psychiatrist, medical researcher, and best-selling author who is credited with the discovery of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Hundreds of scientific studies have been conducted on the benefits of the Transcendental Meditation program at more than 200 independent universities and research institutions worldwide over the past 40 years. The National Institutes of Health have awarded over $26 million to research the effectiveness of TM for reducing stress and stress-related illness with a focus on cardiovascular disease. Findings have been published in leading, peer-reviewed scientific journals, including The American Journal of Cardiology and the American Heart Association’s Hypertension and Stroke.

Research Summary

Benefits to Education

  • 21% increase in high school graduation rate
    Education 133 (4): 495-500, 2013
  • 10% improvement in test scores and GPA
    Education 131: 556–565, 2011
  • Increased attendance and decreased suspensions for high school students
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003
  • Reduced ADHD symptoms and symptoms of other learning disorders
    Mind & Brain: The Journal of Psychiatry 2 (1): 73-81, 2011
  • Increased intelligence and creativity
    Intelligence 29: 419-440, 2001
  • 40% reduction in psychological distress, including stress, anxiety and depression
    American Journal of Hypertension 22(12): 1326-1331, 2009
  • Reduction in teacher burnout and perceived stress
    Permanante Journal 18 (1): 19-23, 2014

For more research on the Quiet Time program

Benefits to Veterans

  • 40-55% reduction in symptoms of PTS and depression
    Military Medicine 176 (6): 626-630, 2011
  • 42% decrease in insomnia
    Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-215, 1985
  • 25% reduction in plasma cortisol levels
    Hormones and Behavior 10: 54–60, 1978
  • Decreased high blood pressure–on par with first-line antihypertensives
    American Journal of Hypertension 21: 310–316, 2008
  • 47% reduced risk of cardiovascular-related mortality
    Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 5: 750-758, 2012
  • 30% improvement in satisfaction with quality of life
    Military Medicine 176 (6): 626-630, 2011

Benefits to Abused Women and Girls

  • Reduced flashbacks and bad memories
    Military Medicine 176 (6): 626-630, 2011
  • Greater resistance to stress
    Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341–349, 1973
  • Twice the effectiveness of conventional approaches for reducing alcoholism and substance abuse
    Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13-87, 1994
  • 42% decrease in insomnia
    Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-215, 1985
  • Twice as effective as other relaxation techniques for decreasing trait anxiety
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 45(6): 957–974, 1989
  • Improved quality of life
    Military Medicine 176 (6): 626-630, 2011

Universities and Medical Schools

Research has been conducted on the Transcendental Meditation program at 250 independent universities and medical schools, including:

  • Harvard Medical School
  • Yale Medical School
  • University of Virginia Medical Center
  • University of Michigan Medical School
  • University of Chicago Medical School
  • University of Southern California Medical School
  • UCLA Medical School
  • UCSF Medical School
  • Stanford Medical School

University of Connecticut

At-risk adolescents reduce stress, anxiety and hyperactivity through Transcendental Meditation
This newly completed study found that 106 at-risk adolescents in three high schools reduced their levels of stress, anxiety, hyperactivity and emotional problems when practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique for four months at school, as compared with controls.

  • Robert Colbert, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Connecticut
  • Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, March 2008

American University

Transcendental Meditation produces positive effects on health, brain functioning and cognitive development in students
This two-year study of 250 students attending American University and surrounding colleges in Washington, D.C., found that the TM program produced beneficial effects for health, brain functioning and cognitive development compared to controls.

  • David Haaga, Ph.D., Professor and Director of the James J. Gray Psychotherapy Training Clinic, American University
  • American Journal of Hypertension, 2009
  • International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2009

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center–Los Angeles

Transcendental Meditation reduces hypertension, obesity and diabetes in patients with coronary heart disease
This study of 103 people with coronary heart disease found that individuals practicing Transcendental Meditation for four months had significantly lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose and insulin levels (which signify reduced insulin resistance), and more stable functioning of the autonomic nervous system compared to controls.

  • C. Noel Bairey Merz, M.D., Director of the Preventive and Rehabilitative Cardiac Center at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; Professor of Medicine at the UCLA Medical School
  • American Medical Association’s Archives of Internal Medicine, June 2006

Medical College of Georgia

Reduced high blood pressure among high school students
This eight-month study of 156 hypertensive African American high school students found that the Transcendental Meditation program reduced high blood pressure among the meditating students as compared with little or no change in the control group (twenty percent of African American teenagers suffer from high blood pressure).

  • Vernon Barnes, Ph.D., physiologist and research scientist, Georgia Prevention Institute, Medical College of Georgia
  • American Journal of Hypertension, April 2004

University of Michigan

Transcendental Meditation reduces stress and increases happiness among middle school students
Two studies on 60 sixth-graders at two middle schools found the practice of Transcendental Meditation over four months positively affected emotional development in early adolescent children in a school setting. Meditating students also had significantly higher scores on affectivity, self-esteem and emotional competence.

  • Rita Benn, Ph.D., Director of Education, Complementary & Alternative Medicine Research Center, University of Michigan
  • National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, April 2003

University of California at Irvine

Transcendental Meditation reduces the brain’s reaction to stress
In this pilot study, 12 subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation for 30 years showed a 40–50% lower brain response to stress and pain compared to 12 healthy controls. Further, when the controls then learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for five months, their brain responses to stress and pain also decreased by a comparable 40–50%.

  • David Orme-Johnson, Ph.D., study director, Neuroimaging Laboratory, University of California at Irvine
  • NeuroReport, August 2006

Bibliography of the research findings
relevant to education

Improved Brain Functioning

  1. Human Physiology 25 (1999) 171-180.
  2. Psychophysiology 31 Abstract (1994) S67.
  3. Psychophysiology 27 Supplement (1990) 4A.
  4. Psychophysiology 26 (1989) 529.
  5. International Journal of Neuroscience 15 (1981) 151-157.
  6. International Journal of Neuroscience 14: (1981) 147–151.
  7. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: (1981) 211-217.
  8. Psychosomatic Medicine 46: (1984) 267–276.

Increased Blood Flow to the Brain

  1. Physiology & Behavior, 59(3) (1996): 399-402 .
  2. American Journal of Physiology 235(1)(1978): R89–R92.
  3. Psychophysiology 13 (1976): 168.
  4. The Physiologist 21 (1978): 60.

Increased Flexibility of Brain Functioning

  1. Biological Psychology, 55 (2000): 41-55.
  2. Psychophysiology 14 (1977): 293–296.

Increased Efficiency of Information Transfer in the Brain

  1. Motivation, Motor and Sensory Processes of the Brain, Progress in Brain Research 54 (1980): 447–453.
  2. International Journal of Neuroscience 10 (1980): 165–170.
  3. Psychophysiology 26 (1989): 529.

Mobilization of the Latent Reserves of the Brain

  1. Proceedings of the International Symposium: Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity, St. Petersburg, Russia, (June 22–24, 1994).

Increased Intelligence in Secondary and College Students

  1. Intelligence 29/5 (2001): 419-440.
  2. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 12 (1991): 1105–1116.
  3. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62 (1986): 731–738.
  4. College Student Journal 15 (1981): 140–146.
  5. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42 (1986): 161–164.
  6. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie [Behavior: Journal of Psychology] 3 (1975): 167–182.
  7. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7) (1978): 3372B–3373B.
  8. Higher Education Research and Development 15 (1995): 73–82.

Increased Creativity

  1. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (1989) 950-964.
  2. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19 (1985) 270-275.
  3. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Improved Memory

  1. Memory and Cognition 10 (1982): 207–215.

Improved Academic Performance

  1. Education 107 (1986): 49–54.
  2. Education 109 (1989): 302–304.
  3. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55 (1985): 164–166.

Benefits in Special Education

  1. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42 (1981) 35-36.
  2. Journal of Biomedicine 1 (1980) 73-88.

Increased Integration of Personality

Increased Self-Confidence and Self-Actualization

  1. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6 (1991): 189–247.
  2. Higher Stages of Human Development: Perspectives on Adult Growth (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 286–341.
  3. British Journal of Psychology 73 (1982) 57-68.
  4. College Student Journal 15 (1981): 140–146.
  5. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20 (1973): 565-566.
  6. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19 (1972): 184–187.

Improved Perception

  1. Perceptual and Motor Skills 49 (1979): 270.
  2. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64 (1987): 1003–1012.

Increased Efficiency of Perception and Memory

  1. Memory and Cognition 10 (1982): 207–215.

Orientation Towards Positive Values

  1. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64 (1987): 1003–1012.

Improved Problem-Solving Ability

  1. Personality and Individual Differences 12 (1991): 1105–1116.
  2. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Decreased Hostility

  1. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5 (1978): 3–20.
  2. Criminal Justice and Behavior 6 (1979): 13–21.

Improved Left Hemispheric Functioning—Improved Verbal and Analytical Thinking

  1. The Journal of Creative Behavior 13 (1979): 169–180.
  2. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19 (1985): 270–275.
  3. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62 (1986): 731–738.

Improved Right Hemispheric Functioning—Improved Synthetic and Holistic Thinking

  1. The Journal of Creative Behavior 13 (1979): 169–180.
  2. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42 (1986): 161–164.
  3. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 2 (1977): 407–415.

Increased Field Independence—Increased Resistance to Distraction and Social Pressure

  1. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39 (1974): 1031–1034.
  2. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65 (1987): 613–614.
  3. Perceptual and Motor Skills 59 (1984): 999-1000.
  4. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7) (1978): 3372B–3373B.

Reduced Anxiety

  1. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45 (1989) 957-974.
  2. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6 (1993) 245-262.
  3. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33 (1977) 1076-1078.
  4. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7) (1978): 3372B–3373B.
  5. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26 (1975): 156–159.

Decreased Depression

  1. Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (1986): 212–215.
  2. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 16(3)(1976): 51–60.
  3. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie [Behavior: Journal of Psychology] 4 (1976): 206–218.

Improved School-Related Behavior

Reduction of Anger, Absenteeism, Disciplinary Infractions and Suspensions

  1. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 23 (2001) S100.
  2. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 10.

Increased Tolerance

  1. The Journal of Psychology 99 (1978): 121-127.
  2. International Journal of the Addictions 26 (1991): 293-325.
  3. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7) (1978): 3372B–3373B.

Reduced Substance Abuse

  1. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11 (1994) 1-524.
  2. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2 (1983) 28-33.
  3. The International Journal of the Addictions 12 (1977) 729-754.
  4. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36 (2003): 127–160.
  5. American Journal of Psychiatry 132 (1975): 942–945.
  6. American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (1974): 60–63.

Accelerated Cognitive Development in Children

  1. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65 (1987): 613–614
  2. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17 (2005): 65–91.
  3. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 17 (2005): 47–64.

Greater Interest in Academic Activities

  1. Western Psychologist 4 (1974): 104–111.

Improved Health

Physiological Rest

  1. American Physiologist 42 (1987) 879-881.
  2. Science 167 (1970) 1751-1754.
  3. American Journal of Physiology 221 (1971) 795-799.

Increased Muscle Relaxation

  1. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35 (1973): 143–151.
  2. Psychopathométrié 4 (1978): 437–438.

Faster Reactions

  1. Personality and Individual Differences 12 (1991): 1106–1116.
  2. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38 (1974): 1263–1268.
  3. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46 (1978): 726.
  4. Motivation, Motor and Sensory Processes of the Brain, Progress in Brain Research 54 (1980): 447–453.
  5. L’Encéphale [The Brain] 10 (1984): 139–144.

Decreased Stress Hormone (Plasma Cortisol)

  1. Hormones and Behavior 10(1)(1978): 54–60.
  2. Journal of Biomedicine 1 (1980): 73–88.
  3. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 7 (1980): 75–76.
  4. Experientia 34 (1978): 618–619.

Increased Stability of the Autonomic Nervous System

  1. Psychosomatic Medicine 35 (1973): 341–349.
  2. Psychosomatic Medicine 44 (1982): 133–153.

Healthier Response to Stress

  1. Psychosomatic Medicine 35 (1973): 341–349.
  2. Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (1986): 212–215.
  3. Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987): 212–213.
  4. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 33 (1989): 29–33.
  5. Psychosomatic Medicine 44 (1982): 133-153.
  6. International Journal of Neuroscience 46 (1989): 77-86.

Improved Quality of Life in People Living with HIV/AIDS

  1. Aids Care 25 (2013) 1291-7.
  2. SF AIDS Foundation/Maharishi University of Management. Submitted for publication.

Reduced Blood Pressure in Adolescents

  1. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 22 (2000) S133.
  2. American Journal of Hypertension (2004).

Decreased Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects

  1. Hypertension 26 (1995): 820-827.
  2. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (1989): 950–964.

Decreased Insomnia

  1. The New Zealand Family Physician 9 (1982): 62–65.
  2. Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (1986): 212–215.
  3. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (1990): 729.

Healthier Family Life

  1. Psychological Reports 51 (1982): 887–890.
  2. Journal of Counseling and Development 64 (1986): 212–215

Lower Health Insurance Utilization Rates

  1. Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987) 493-507.
  2. American Journal of Health Promotion 10 (1996) 208-216.

Improved Mind-Body Coordination

  1. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42 (1986) 161-164.
  2. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46 (1978) 726.
  3. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38 (1974) 1263-1268.
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TM Research

Bibliography

IMPROVED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Increased Creativity, Intelligence, and Learning Ability

Tjoa, A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167–182, 1975.

Shecter, H.W. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Travis, F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169–180, 1979.

Aron, A. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140–146, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207–215, 1982.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270–275, 1985.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731–738, 1986.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161–164, 1986.

Warner, T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

Dixon, C.A. Consciousness and cognitive development: A six-month longitudinal study of four-year-olds practicing the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(3): 1518B, 1989.

Cranson, R.W. et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105–1116, 1991.

So, K.T. and Orme-Johnson, D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419–440, 2001.

Higher Levels of Brain Functioning

Bennett, J.E. and Trinder, J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293–296, 1977.

Banquet, J.P. and Lesevre, N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447–453, 1980.

McEvoy, T.M. et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165–170, 1980.

Warshal, D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103–1106, 1980.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Haynes, C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.

Nidich, S.I. et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166–173, 1983.

Wallace, R.K. et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.

Gallois, P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encéphale 10: 139–144, 1984.

Goddard, P.H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.

Cranson, R. et al. P300 under conditions of temporal uncertainty and filter attenuation: Reduced latency in long-term practitioners of TM. Psychophysiology 27 (Suppl.): 4A (Abstract), 1990.

Travis, F. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28 (3a): S58, 1991.

Lyubimov, N.N. Electrophysiological characteristics of mobilization of hidden brain reserves. Abstracts, the International Symposium “Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity” (St. Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academy of Science, Institute of the Human Brain): 5, 1994.

Travis, F. and Miskov, S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S67 (Abstract), 1994.

Travis, F. Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 61: 293–319, 2002.

Improvements in Academics and School Behavior

Schecter, H.W. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Kember, P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164–166, 1985.

Nidich, S.I. et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49–54, 1986.

Nidich, S.I. and Nidich, R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302–304, 1989.

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Benefits for Special and Remedial Education

McIntyre, M.E. et al. Transcendental Meditation and stuttering: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 294 (Abstract), 1974.

Allen, C.P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback relaxation, and conventional relaxation on vasoconstriction, muscle tension, and stuttering: A quantitative comparison. Dissertation Abstracts International 40(2): 689B, 1979.

Subrahmanyam, S. and Porkodi, K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.

Eyerman, J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35–36, 1981

Wood, M.F. The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation as a means of improving the echolalic behavior of an autistic student. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Autism Research, Boston, Massachusetts, July 1981.

IMPROVED PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH

Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820–827, 1995.

Walton, K.G. et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28: 106–123, 2002.

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366–369, 2004.

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension, 18(1): 88–98, 2005.

Decreased Medical Care Utilization and Hospitalization

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.

Herron, R.E. et al. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 10: 208–216, 1996.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Herron, R.E. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135–144, 1997.

Decreased Anxiety and Faster Recovery from Stress

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341–349, 1973.

Candelent, T. and Candelent, G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156–159, 1975.

Dillbeck, M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076–1078, 1977.

Brooks, J.S. and Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212–215, 1985.

Eppley, K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957–974, 1989.

Gaylord, C. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77–86, 1989.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 1993.

Reversal of Aging and Increased Longevity

Wallace, R.K. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53–58, 1982.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950–964, 1989.

Schneider, R.H. et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005.

IMPROVED SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Increased Efficiency, and Improved Integration of Personality

Seeman, W. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184–187, 1972.

Nidich, S. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565–566, 1973.

Appelle, S. and Oswald, L.E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263–1268, 1974.

Frew, D.R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362–368, 1974.

Pelletier, K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974.

Holt, W.R. et al. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

Gelderloos, P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003–1012, 1987.

Gelderloos, P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–247, 1991.

Reduced Substance Abuse

Wallace, R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369–376, 1972.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60–63, 1974.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942–945, 1975.

Monahan, R.J. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. The International Journal of the Addictions 12: 729–754, 1977.

Aron, E.N. and Aron, A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28–33, 1983.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.

Effective Criminal Rehabilitation

Abrams, A.I. and Siegel, L.M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5: 3–20, 1978.

Bleick, C.R. and Abrams, A.I. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice 15: 211–230, 1987.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation in criminal rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36 (1/2/3/4): 2003.

THE COLLECTIVE EFFECT:
Reduced Crime and Conflict, and Improved Economic and Social Trends

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 4: 25–45, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 9: 457–486, 1988

Cavanaugh, K.L. Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 799–804, 1987.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 8: 67–104, 1987.

Cavanaugh, K.L. and King, K.D. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 491–496, 1988.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. et al. International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 776–812, 1988.

Davies, J.L. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International 49(8): 2381A, 1989.

Dillbeck, M.C. Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research 22: 399–418, 1990.

Gelderloos, P. et al. The dynamics of US–Soviet relations, 1979–1986: Effects of reducing social stress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 297–302, 1990.

Assimakis, P.D. and Dillbeck, M.C. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 76: 1171–1193, 1995.

Dillbeck, M.C. and Rainforth, M.V. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 38–43, 1996.

Hatchard, G.D. et al. A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime, and Law 2: 165–174, 1996.

Hagelin, J.S. et al. Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC: Results of the National Demonstration Project, June–July 1993. Social Indicators Research 47: 153–201, 1999.

Orme-Johnson, D.W., et al. Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36: 283–302, 2003.

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TM Research

Medical College of Georgia

Medical College of Georgia

Transcendental Meditation Lowers Blood Pressure in Black Adolescents

(April 2, 2004) Black adolescents at risk to be hypertensive adults can lower their blood pressure through daily Transcendental Meditation, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Hypertension.

A study of 156 inner-city black adolescents in Augusta, Ga., with high-normal pressure showed that teens who practiced 15 minutes of Transcendental Meditation twice daily steadily lowered their daytime blood pressures over four months and that their pressures tended to stay lower, according to Dr. Vernon A. Barnes, physiologist at the Medical College of Georgia and principal author of the paper.

“Allowing your mind to go to that state of inner quietness and be there for a time has an effect on the physiology by reducing stress hormone levels like cortisol and reducing activation of the sympathetic nervous system which controls the fight-or-flight response,” says Dr. Barnes. “In a short time, we can teach this standardized meditation method that has been taught all over the world for 50 years. That technique can then be used throughout a lifetime without side effects or additional expense.”

Adolescents in the study who practiced Transcendental Meditation experienced an average 3.5 millimeter drop in their systolic pressure, the top number that indicates the pressure inside blood vessels that the heart is pumping against, and a 3.4 millimeter decrease in diastolic pressure, the bottom number that indicates pressure while the heart is at rest.

Participants in health education classes, who served as the control groups, experienced no significant change. Heart rate, probably one of the simplest measures of stress level reduction, also dropped in meditating students and remained consistent in the control groups, Dr. Barnes says.

“Even if your blood pressure comes down a few millimeters when you are young, if you can maintain that into adulthood, you can significantly reduce your risk for cardiovascular disease,” he says.

High blood pressure affects one in four adults in the U.S. and is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke, the first and third leading causes of death, respectively, according to the National Center for Health Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “This is not a problem that occurs suddenly at age 45 or 50,” Dr. Barnes says. “High blood pressure starts at a young age and it seems it’s starting at a younger age than we have previously thought. So we wanted to look at intervention with young people, specifically young African-Americans who likely will have the most severe problems with hypertension when they grow up.”

Dr. Barnes first identified students with high-normal pressure based on three consecutive screenings in the Richmond County, Ga., school system, then randomly assigned them to the Transcendental Meditation program or a 15-minute health education program based on National Institutes of Health guidelines that included no intervention.

The Transcendental Meditation group meditated for 15 minutes twice daily – once at school and once at home – and twice daily at home during the weekend. To ensure an accurate measure of blood pressure as the adolescents went about their lives, both groups wore 24-hour monitoring devices to check their blood pressure every 20 minutes from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. and every 30 minutes from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. Researchers also looked at parameters such as body mass index, weight, body surface area and environmental stress so that other changes that might affect blood pressure would be noted.

“Once the program stopped, we had a follow-up at four months and their blood pressures were still down,” Dr. Barnes says, but long-term studies are needed to see the impact of reduced pressure on disease development.

He noted that underlying physiologic pathways that enable meditation to lower blood pressure are unclear and also need further study. However, the practice that transcends thought has been shown to reduce sympathetic nervous system response and stress hormone levels which ultimately reduces the workload on the heart. “These events may result in improved myocardial and vascular function, leading to decreased (blood pressure) levels, thereby helping to prevent early onset of hypertension,” he and his colleagues at MCG’s Georgia Prevention Institute write.

He says that the health benefits of Transcendental Meditation are becoming more accepted in the medical community as these types of studies document its impact on the body and mind. The willingness of the teens to practice meditation is evidence, although perhaps less traditional documentation, of its benefits as well. “How do you get a teen-ager to sit for 15 minutes with his eyes closed twice a day every day for a long period of time? How can you possibly accomplish that?” he asks rhetorically.

The technique, which enables the most settled, relaxed state of mind, is an easy sell once people practice it, says Dr. Barnes, who has used the technique since 1972 and taught it since 1974. “Anyone can meditate and anyone can benefit. You don’t have to be under a huge load of stress and you don’t have to be hypertensive. There are many benefits in terms of developing your own potential,” he says, equating the experience to a mental bath that washes away the stress of the day.

Dr. Barnes’ research was supported by funding from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and an American Heart Association Scientist Development Grant. He also acknowledged the support of the Richmond County School System in helping make the research possible.

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TM Research

University of California at Irvine

University of California at Irvine

University of California at Irvine Study Finds Transcendental Meditation Reduces the Brain’s Reaction to Pain

9th Aug 2006

Media Advisory: Author contact: David Orme-Johnson, Ph.D., call 850-231-2866, or 850-830-5847 (mobile phone) or email: davidoj@gnt.net

Twelve healthy long-term meditators who had been practicing Transcendental Meditation for 30 years showed a 40-50% lower brain response to pain compared to 12 healthy controls, reported by a latest NeuroReport journal article, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Vol.17 No.12; 21 August 2006:1359-1363). Further, when the 12 controls then learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for 5 months, their brain responses to pain also decreased by a comparable 40-50%. www.neuroreport.com Current issue (Aug 9).

Transcendental Meditation could reduce the brain’s response to pain because neuroimaging and autonomic studies indicate that it produces a physiological state capable of modifying various kinds of pain. In time it reduces trait anxiety, improves stress reactivity and decreases distress from acute pain.

According to Orme-Johnson, lead author of this research, “Prior research indicates that Transcendental Meditation creates a more balanced outlook on life and greater equanimity in reacting to stress. This study suggests that this is not just an attitudinal change, but a fundamental change in how the brain functions”.

Pain is part of everyone’s experience and 50 million people worldwide suffer from chronic pain. Transcendental Meditation would have a long term effect in reducing responses in the affective component of the pain matrix. Future research could focus on other areas of the pain matrix and the possible effects of other meditation techniques to relieve pain.

Research study supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health.

Facts on Pain
According to the American Academy of Pain Medicine, chronic pain afflicts 50 million people worldwide, and acute pain is the most common reason people seek medical attention. Stress responses to untreated pain adversely impact virtually all systems of the body, especially the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory, and immune systems. The cost of treating pain is estimated at $100 billion each year in the U.S. alone.

About Transcendental Meditation
Transcendental Meditation, derived from the ancient Vedic tradition in India, is taught through a standard protocol involving lectures, personal instruction and group meetings, according to background information in the article.

About Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

LWW is a unit of Wolters Kluwer Health, a group of leading information companies offering specialized publications and software in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, science, and related areas. Operating companies include Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Adis International, Ovid Technologies, and Facts and Comparisons.

About the Authors

  1. David Orme-Johnson, PhD, has been a pioneering researcher on meditation since 1970.  He has over 100 publications on meditation in a wide variety of fields, including electroencephalography, psychophysiology, health, intelligence, creativity, drug and prison rehabilitation, higher states of consciousness, collective consciousness, quality of life, and conflict resolution. Dr. Orme-Johnson, now retired and living in Seagrove, Florida, was formerly Chairman of the Psychology Department and Dean of Research at Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa. David’s vita: http://www.truthabouttm.org/truth/Home/AboutDavidOrme-Johnson/index.cfm
  2. Zhang-Hee Cho, Ph.D., is the Director of the Neuroimaging Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine, where the study was conducted. Dr. Cho, a physicist by background, is widely recognized as a leading expert in neuroimaging. He was one of the inventors of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and is a member of the US National Academy of Science.  Dr. Cho is currently in Korea setting up an MRI there.
  3. Robert Schneider, MD, is Director of the Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, which sponsored the study through an NIH grant. The Institute is one of nine NIH-supported centers in the country for studying natural medicine, and the only one with specialization in minority health. Dr. Schneider has many publications on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on improving cardiovascular health in minority elderly.

Contact David Orme-Johnson for additional background information.

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TM Research

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Find Transcendental Meditation May Improve Cardiac Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

Researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles conducted a 16-week trial of Transcendental Meditation in patients with coronary heart disease. Fifty-two participants (average age 67.7 years) were instructed in Transcendental Meditation and 51 control patients (average age 67.1 years) received health education.

Overall, of the 103 participants who were enrolled, 84 (82 percent) completed the study. At the end of the trial, patients in the Transcendental Meditation group had significantly lower blood pressure; improved fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, which signify reduced insulin resistance; and more stable functioning of the autonomic nervous system. “These physiological effects were accomplished without changes in body weight, medication or psychosocial variables and despite a marginally statistically significant increase in physical activity in the health education group,” the authors write.

“Our results, demonstrating beneficial physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation in the absence of effects on psychosocial variables, suggest that Transcendental Meditation may modulate response to stress rather than alter the stress itself, similar to the physiological impact of exercise conditioning,” the authors write. This method of controlling the body’s response to stress may provide a new target for the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, warranting further study, they conclude.

The research was published in the AMA’s Archives of Internal Medicine, July 2006.