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TM Research

Bibliography

IMPROVED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Increased Creativity, Intelligence, and Learning Ability

Tjoa, A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie 3: 167–182, 1975.

Shecter, H.W. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Travis, F. The Transcendental Meditation technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169–180, 1979.

Aron, A. The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum: A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning. College Student Journal 15: 140–146, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Frontal EEG coherence, H-reflex recovery, concept learning, and the TM-Sidhi program. International Journal of Neuroscience 15: 151–157, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem-solving. Memory & Cognition 10: 207–215, 1982.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, pure consciousness, creativity and intelligence. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19: 270–275, 1985.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills 62: 731–738, 1986.

Jedrczak, A. et al. The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief test of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42: 161–164, 1986.

Warner, T.Q. Transcendental Meditation and developmental advancement: Mediating abilities and conservation performance. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8): 3558B, 1987.

Dixon, C.A. Consciousness and cognitive development: A six-month longitudinal study of four-year-olds practicing the children’s Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 50(3): 1518B, 1989.

Cranson, R.W. et al. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105–1116, 1991.

So, K.T. and Orme-Johnson, D.W. Three randomized experiments on the longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on cognition. Intelligence 29: 419–440, 2001.

Higher Levels of Brain Functioning

Bennett, J.E. and Trinder, J. Hemispheric laterality and cognitive style associated with Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 14: 293–296, 1977.

Banquet, J.P. and Lesevre, N. Event-related potentials in altered states of consciousness: Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain. Progress in Brain Research 54: 447–453, 1980.

McEvoy, T.M. et al. Effects of meditation on brainstem auditory evoked potentials. International Journal of Neuroscience 10: 165–170, 1980.

Warshal, D. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on normal and Jendrassik reflex time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 50: 1103–1106, 1980.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Haynes, C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience 13: 211–217, 1981.

Nidich, S.I. et al. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education 12: 166–173, 1983.

Wallace, R.K. et al. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology 79: 77–86, 1983.

Gallois, P. Modifications neurophysiologiques et respiratoires lors de la pratique des techniques de relaxation. L'Encéphale 10: 139–144, 1984.

Goddard, P.H. Reduced age-related declines of P300 latency in elderly practicing Transcendental Meditation. Psychophysiology 26: 529, 1989.

Cranson, R. et al. P300 under conditions of temporal uncertainty and filter attenuation: Reduced latency in long-term practitioners of TM. Psychophysiology 27 (Suppl.): 4A (Abstract), 1990.

Travis, F. Eyes open and TM EEG patterns after one and after eight years of TM practice. Psychophysiology 28 (3a): S58, 1991.

Lyubimov, N.N. Electrophysiological characteristics of mobilization of hidden brain reserves. Abstracts, the International Symposium “Physiological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity” (St. Petersburg, Russia: Russian Academy of Science, Institute of the Human Brain): 5, 1994.

Travis, F. and Miskov, S. P300 latency and amplitude during eyes-closed rest and Transcendental Meditation practice. Psychophysiology 31: S67 (Abstract), 1994.

Travis, F. Patterns of EEG coherence, power, and contingent negative variation characterize the integration of transcendental and waking states. Biological Psychology 61: 293–319, 2002.

Improvements in Academics and School Behavior

Schecter, H.W. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International 38(7): 3372B–3373B, 1978.

Kember, P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and postgraduate academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55: 164–166, 1985.

Nidich, S.I. et al. School effectiveness: Achievement gains at the Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment. Education 107: 49–54, 1986.

Nidich, S.I. and Nidich, R.J. Increased academic achievement at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment: A replication study. Education 109: 302–304, 1989.

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1:10, 2003.

Benefits for Special and Remedial Education

McIntyre, M.E. et al. Transcendental Meditation and stuttering: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 294 (Abstract), 1974.

Allen, C.P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation, electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback relaxation, and conventional relaxation on vasoconstriction, muscle tension, and stuttering: A quantitative comparison. Dissertation Abstracts International 40(2): 689B, 1979.

Subrahmanyam, S. and Porkodi, K. Neurohumoral correlates of Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Biomedicine 1: 73–88, 1980.

Eyerman, J. Transcendental Meditation and mental retardation. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 42: 35–36, 1981

Wood, M.F. The effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation as a means of improving the echolalic behavior of an autistic student. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Autism Research, Boston, Massachusetts, July 1981.

IMPROVED PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH

Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 26: 820–827, 1995.

Walton, K.G. et al. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease, Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in treatment and prevention. Behavioral Medicine 28: 106–123, 2002.

Barnes, V.A. et al. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension 17: 366–369, 2004.

Schneider, R.H. et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction in the treatment of hypertension in African Americans during one year. American Journal of Hypertension, 18(1): 88–98, 2005.

Decreased Medical Care Utilization and Hospitalization

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Medical care utilization and the Transcendental Meditation program. Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493–507, 1987.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the mental health of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health 32: 656, 1990.

Haratani, T. and Hemmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on the health behavior of industrial workers. Japanese Journal of Public Health 37 (10 Suppl.): 729, 1990.

Herron, R.E. et al. The impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on government payments to physicians in Quebec. American Journal of Health Promotion 10: 208–216, 1996.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. and Herron, R.E. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures. The American Journal of Managed Care 3: 135–144, 1997.

Decreased Anxiety and Faster Recovery from Stress

Orme-Johnson, D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341–349, 1973.

Candelent, T. and Candelent, G. Teaching Transcendental Meditation in a psychiatric setting. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 26: 156–159, 1975.

Dillbeck, M.C. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique on anxiety level. Journal of Clinical Psychology 33: 1076–1078, 1977.

Brooks, J.S. and Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in the treatment of post-Vietnam adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212–215, 1985.

Eppley, K.R. et al. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 45: 957–974, 1989.

Gaylord, C. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique and progressive muscle relaxation on EEG coherence, stress reactivity, and mental health in black adults. International Journal of Neuroscience 46: 77–86, 1989.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on stress reduction, health, and employee development: A prospective study in two occupational settings. Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 1993.

Reversal of Aging and Increased Longevity

Wallace, R.K. et al. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience 16: 53–58, 1982.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and longevity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 950–964, 1989.

Schneider, R.H. et al. Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons > 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology 95: 1060-1064, 2005.

IMPROVED SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Increased Efficiency, and Improved Integration of Personality

Seeman, W. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184–187, 1972.

Nidich, S. et al. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565–566, 1973.

Appelle, S. and Oswald, L.E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263–1268, 1974.

Frew, D.R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362–368, 1974.

Pelletier, K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031–1034, 1974.

Holt, W.R. et al. Transcendental Meditation vs. pseudo-meditation on visual choice reaction time. Perceptual and Motor Skills 46: 726, 1978.

Gelderloos, P. Cognitive orientation toward positive values in advanced participants of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 64: 1003–1012, 1987.

Gelderloos, P. Field independence of students at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment and a Montessori school. Perceptual and Motor Skills 65: 613–614, 1987.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation, self-actualization, and psychological health: A conceptual overview and statistical meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–247, 1991.

Reduced Substance Abuse

Wallace, R.K. et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J.D. Zarafonetis (Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger): 369–376, 1972.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60–63, 1974.

Shafii, M. et al. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942–945, 1975.

Monahan, R.J. Secondary prevention of drug dependence through the Transcendental Meditation program in metropolitan Philadelphia. The International Journal of the Addictions 12: 729–754, 1977.

Aron, E.N. and Aron, A. The patterns of reduction of drug and alcohol use among Transcendental Meditation participants. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 2: 28–33, 1983.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 11: 13–87, 1994.

Effective Criminal Rehabilitation

Abrams, A.I. and Siegel, L.M. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior 5: 3–20, 1978.

Bleick, C.R. and Abrams, A.I. The Transcendental Meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice 15: 211–230, 1987.

Alexander, C.N. et al. Transcendental Meditation in criminal rehabilitation and crime prevention. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36 (1/2/3/4): 2003.

THE COLLECTIVE EFFECT:
Reduced Crime and Conflict, and Improved Economic and Social Trends

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice 4: 25–45, 1981.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 9: 457–486, 1988

Cavanaugh, K.L. Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 799–804, 1987.

Dillbeck, M.C. et al. Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. The Journal of Mind and Behavior 8: 67–104, 1987.

Cavanaugh, K.L. and King, K.D. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun’s misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi’s Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 491–496, 1988.

Orme-Johnson, D.W. et al. International peace project in the Middle East: The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 776–812, 1988.

Davies, J.L. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International 49(8): 2381A, 1989.

Dillbeck, M.C. Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research 22: 399–418, 1990.

Gelderloos, P. et al. The dynamics of US–Soviet relations, 1979–1986: Effects of reducing social stress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 297–302, 1990.

Assimakis, P.D. and Dillbeck, M.C. Time series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports 76: 1171–1193, 1995.

Dillbeck, M.C. and Rainforth, M.V. Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association): 38–43, 1996.

Hatchard, G.D. et al. A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime, and Law 2: 165–174, 1996.

Hagelin, J.S. et al. Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation program on preventing violent crime in Washington, DC: Results of the National Demonstration Project, June–July 1993. Social Indicators Research 47: 153–201, 1999.

Orme-Johnson, D.W., et al. Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36: 283–302, 2003.

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